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City Shakhty









Автор перевода Е. А. Бондарева, преподаватель МБОУ СОШ № 25





Shakhty is the largest industrial and cultural centre of Rostov region. The 2nd city in the region in area, third in population after Rostov-on-don, Taganrog, Novocherkassk. The city is located in the South-Western part of the region, in the South-Eastern slopes of the Donetsk ridge. The total area of the city is 158,3 thousand km Population 236,7 thousand.

The city began in 1805 with the first settlements– hamlets Vlasivka, Popovka, Maksymivka. In 1807 he was registered as a settlement near the river Grushevka Khutor Popovskiy, named after its founder – Cossack Popov, who is one of the first to organize here the production of coal. In 1839 formed Grushevsky  mine and Posad, in common – Grushevka. In the 2nd half of the 19th century from the Central provinces rushed a lot of peasants on temporary work in the mountain mines, many remained in permanent residence. Their right to a settlement was secured on 3 October 1867, when the Mountain Hrushevsky, the settlement received the status of "mountain city with all rights assigned to the towns at all." 3 January 1883, the settlement was transformed into the city Aleksandrovsk-Grushevskii, which name included not only the name of the place where it was founded, but the name of Emperor Alexander II in memory of his recent tragic death at the hands of terrorists on March 1, 1881, and by decrees and laws which began to develop mining on the don.

Until 1917 in the town of Aleksandrovsk-Grushevsky worked 157 commercial enterprises, 65 mines, 12 factories, the city's population of 40 thousand people.

The first spontaneous strikes of miners date back to 1879, then the city has always been one of the centers of revolutionary action. May 1, 1903, was held the first major gathering of miners. 25 Oct 1905 for the first time the miners Aleksandrovsk-Grushevsky held a strike. In the last year before the revolution in our city's population was 51.6 thousand people worked in 2 hospital, the city almshouse, a library, 3 theater and 1 summer cinema, 10 churches, city garden. As across Russia, in the city in 1917 started a big strikes and rallies. Formed a diarchy. After the occupation by the red guards of the city and in 1918 he organized local Councils. However, in the course of the entire year was a struggle for mines. 5 times Cossack army under the command of General Popov was advancing on the city and each time it was repulsed by detachments of miners. But on 11 may, the city was taken and all 1919 Alexandrovsk-Grushevsky was white, administratively it belonged to the Cossack troops proclaimed the independent state of vseveliky army of Donskoy. 5 Jan 1919, of the cavalry brigade of the red Army Dmitry Redneck liberated the city from the white Cossack army was formed the Military revolutionary Committee headed by H. P. Chernokozov.

11 Feb 1920 Resolution Donetsk provincial revolutionary Committee of Alexandrovsk-Grushevsky became a city of Mine. Until the end of 1924, were in the Donetsk province of the Ukrainian Republic. By the end of 1924, the city of Mines was transferred to the North Caucasus region. In 1926, until 1930, the city is part of the South-Eastern region of the RSFSR and head of the Shakhty-Donetsk district.

In 1928 one of the first in the USSR repressive deeds "Shakhty affair" began in the city of Shakhty. Officially called "economic counter-revolution in the Donbas." Accidents often occur in the mines of the trust "Donugol", was presented as a result of the activities of an illegal counter-revolutionary wrecking organization, consisting of the old (pre-revolutionary) technical specialists. The results of the investigation of the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation in 2000, all convicted in the case was exonerated for lack of evidence.

In the period of socialist construction, the town the Mine was one of the most developing cities in the South of the USSR. In 1937, the city became part of the Rostov region. The entire 20th century for the city of Mines was marked by a valiant miners that brought them worldwide fame. Many countries have received extracted in the Mines the coal.

The period of the great Patriotic war. July 22, 1942 the city was abandoned by Soviet troops. At dawn on 24 July 1942 the Nazis captured the city. Started 206 days of the Nazi occupation. Before the occupation of the city by German invaders, was organized Shakhty underground, the head of which became the party organizer of the Central Committee of the CPSU(b) mine them. Thieves T. S. Frost. Shot on 16 September. 5 Oct grabbed Ivan Klimenko, who headed the guerrilla movement in the city. On 10 December the house was captured and arrested by the Gestapo Olga Meshkova – connected underground. Two cities in the USSR survived the tragedy of mass shootings and the reset shaft: Krasnodon and Shakhty. February 12, 1943 the city was liberated. 31 Lahtinen became a Hero of the Soviet Union. In 1946, already restored almost all mines in the city.

In 1954, 6 of January, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR approved the creation of 5 new areas, among them the Kamenka region. 27 August 1955, the regional center of the Kamenskaya region is the city of Mine. In 1957, Kamenskaya oblast abolished. The town of Shakhty became part of the Rostov region. The city has 15 mines, 38 enterprises, has a population of 196 thousand people.

 In the period from 50-ies to the 90-th year was opened and built many new enterprises: Shakhty molkombinat, State Shoe factory, Cotton mill, plant "Gidroprivod"; cultural and educational centers: Museum of local lore, the area 40 years of Victory sports Palace, the cinema "Aurora", etc. Among residents of the Mine - 17 Heroes of Socialist Labor, 47 Honorary citizens of the city. In the period of early market economy in the country in the city of Mines have been modernized previously built businesses, eliminated unprofitable production, created a new one. In 2016, the city has 42 large and medium-sized enterprises. In many regions of Russia you can find products Shakhty companies: "Stroyfarfor", "Don", "Gloria jeans", "Shakhty bakery", "Rostov electro-metallurgical plant", "Ayutinskiy bread", "tehmash"and others.

City Mine, famous for its Olympic Champions: 9 Olympic Champions (V. I. Alekseev, D. A. Rigert, M. V. Logvinenko, V. N. Tregubov, R. V. Plyukfelder, A. I. Vahonin, N. A. Kolesnikov, L. A. Kondratiev, A. A. Silnov) and 1 Paralympic champion (A. A. Nevolin-Lights). For outstanding achievements Shakhty athletes at the Olympic games, European and world competitions city Mine, was listed in the Guinness Book of world records for the number of Olympic Champions per capital.

In 2011, formed by a selection from the Rostov and Novocherkassk diocese Shakhtinskaya Diocese. In 1997 began the restoration of the Cathedral of the Holy virgin, Orthodox Church, built at the turn of XIX–XX centuries, closed in the early 1930-ies, now fully restored and is a functioning Cathedral Aleksandrovsk-Grushevskii deanery of Shakhty and Millerovo diocese of Donskoy the Archdiocese. In 2016, the city has 18 Orthodox churches.





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